Each month, we publish a series of articles of interest to homeowners -- money-saving tips, household safety checklists, home improvement advice, real estate insider secrets, etc. Whether you currently are in the market for a new home, or not, we hope that this information is of value to you. Please feel free to pass these articles on to your family and friends.
Is the Water You Drink Safe?
North America has one of the safest water supplies in the world. However, national statistics don't tell you specifically about the quality and safety of the water coming out of your tap. That's because drinking water quality varies from place to place, depending on the condition of the source water from which
it is drawn and the treatment it receives.
There is no such thing as naturally pure water. In nature, all water
contains some impurities. However, it is crucial to know when and
how the quality of the water can affect your health.
Using the new information that is now available about drinking water,
citizens can both be aware of the challenges of keeping drinking water
safe and take an active role in protecting drinking water.
Also This Month...
11 Things You Need to Know to Pass Your Home Inspection
According to industry experts, there are at least 33
physical problems that will come under scrutiny during a home inspection.
We've identified the 11 most common of these and, if not identified and
dealt with, any of these 11 items could cost you dearly in terms of
Protecting Your Home from Fire and Carbon Monoxide
Thousands of people die from fire every year. Most residential fire deaths
occur because of inhalation of toxic gas, rather than contact with the flames.
The tragedy is that many of these deaths could be prevented by taking a few
Is the Water You Drink Safe?
North America has one of the safest water supplies in the world. However, national statistics don't tell you specifically about the quality and safety of the water coming out of your tap. That's because drinking water quality varies from place to place, depending on the condition of the source water from which it is drawn and the treatment it receives.
What contaminants may be found in drinking water?
There is no such thing as naturally pure water. In nature, all water contains some impurities. As water flows in streams, sits in lakes, and filters through layers of soil and rock in the ground, it dissolves or absorbs the substances that it touches. Some of these substances are harmless. In fact, some people prefer mineral water precisely because minerals give it an appealing taste. However, at certain levels minerals, just like man-made chemicals, are considered contaminants that can make water unpalatable or even unsafe.
Some contaminants come from erosion of natural rock formations. Other contaminants are substances discharged from factories, applied to farmlands, or used by consumers in their homes and yards. Sources of contaminants might be in your
neighborhood or might be many miles away. Your local water quality report tells which contaminants are in your drinking water, the levels at which they were found, and the actual or likely source of each contaminant.
Some ground water systems have established wellhead protection programs to prevent substances from contaminating their wells. Similarly, some surface water systems protect the watershed around their reservoir to prevent contamination.
Where does drinking water come from?
A clean, constant supply of drinking water is essential to every community. People in large cities frequently drink water that comes from surface water sources, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. Sometimes these sources are close to the community. Other times, drinking water suppliers get their water from sources many miles away. In either case, when you think about where your drinking water comes from, it's important to consider not just the part of the river or lake that you can see, but the entire watershed. The watershed is the land area over which water flows into the river, lake, or reservoir.
In rural areas, people are more likely to drink ground water that was pumped from a well. These wells tap into aquifers--the natural reservoirs under the earth's surface--that may be only a few miles wide, or may span the borders of many regions. As with surface water, it is important to remember that activities many miles away from you may affect the quality of ground water.
How is drinking water treated?
When a water supplier takes untreated water from a river or reservoir, the water often contains dirt and tiny pieces of leaves and other organic matter, as well as trace amounts of certain contaminants. When it gets to the treatment plant, water suppliers often add chemicals called coagulants to the water. These act on the water as it flows very slowly through tanks so that the dirt and other contaminants form clumps that settle to the bottom. Usually, this water then flows through a filter for removal of the smallest contaminants like viruses and Giardia.
Ground water is naturally filtered as it passes through layers of the earth into underground reservoirs known as aquifers. Water that suppliers pump from wells generally contains less organic material than surface water and may not need to go through any or all of the treatments described in the previous paragraph. The quality of the water will depend on local conditions.
The most common drinking water treatment, considered by many to be one of the most important scientific advances of the 20th century, is disinfection. Most water suppliers add chlorine or another disinfectant to kill bacteria and other germs.
Water suppliers use other treatments as needed, according to the quality of their source water. For example, systems whose water is contaminated with organic chemicals can treat their water with activated carbon, which absorbs or attracts the chemicals dissolved in the water.
What are the health effects
of contaminants in drinking water?
The contaminants fall into two groups according to the health effects that they cause. Your water supplier will alert you through the media, mail, or other means if there is a potential acute or chronic health effect from compounds in the drinking water. You may want to contact the supplier for additional information specific to your area.
Acute effects occur within hours or days of the time that a person consumes a contaminant. People can suffer acute health effects from almost any contaminant if they are exposed to extraordinarily high levels (as in the case of a spill). In drinking water, microbes, such as bacteria and viruses, are the contaminants with the greatest chance of reaching levels high enough to cause acute health effects. Most people's bodies can fight off these microbial contaminants the way they fight off germs, and these acute contaminants typically don't have permanent effects. Nonetheless, when high enough levels occur, they can make people ill, and can be dangerous or deadly for a person whose immune system is already weak due to HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy, steroid use, or another reason.
Chronic effects occur after people consume a contaminant at levels over safety standards for many years. The drinking water contaminants that can have chronic effects are chemicals (such as disinfection by-products, solvents, and pesticides), radionuclides (such as radium), and minerals (such as arsenic). Examples of the chronic effects of drinking water contaminants are cancer, liver or kidney problems, or reproductive difficulties.
How can I help protect drinking water?
Using the new information that is now available about drinking water, citizens can both be aware of the challenges of keeping drinking water safe and take an active role in protecting drinking water. There are lots of ways that individuals can get involved. Some people will help clean up the watershed that is the source of their community's water. Other people might get involved in wellhead protection activities to prevent the contamination of the ground water source that provides water to their community. These people will be able to make use of the information that local authorities and water systems are gathering as they assess their sources of water.
Other people will want to attend public meetings to ensure that the community's need for safe drinking water is considered in making decisions about land use. And all consumers can do their part to conserve water and to dispose properly of household chemicals.
11 Things You Need to Know to Pass Your Home Inspection
"According to industry experts, there are at least 33
physical problems that will come under scrutiny during a home inspection when
your home is for sale. Here are 11 you should know about if you're planning to
put your home up for sale."
Homebuyers Want to Know Your Home Inside and Out
While homebuyers are as individual as the homes they plan on purchasing,
one thing they share is a desire to ensure that the home they will call their
own is as good beneath the surface as it appears to be. Will the roof end up
leaking? Is the wiring safe? What about the plumbing? These, and
others, are the questions that the buyers looking at your home will seek
professional help to answer.
According to industry experts, there are at least 33 physical problems
that will come under scrutiny during a home inspection. We've identified the
11 most common of these and, if not identified and dealt with, any of these 11
items could cost you dearly in terms of repair.
In most cases, you can make a reasonable pre-inspection yourself if you
know what you're looking for. And knowing what youâ€™re looking for can help
you prevent little problems from growing into costly and unmanageable ones.
11 Things You Need to Know to Pass Your Home Inspection
1. Defective Plumbing
Defective plumbing can manifest itself in two different ways: leaking, and
clogging. A visual inspection can detect leaking, and an inspector will gauge
water pressure by turning on all faucets in the highest bathroom and then
flushing the toilet. If you hear the sound of running water, it indicates that
the pipes are undersized. If the water appears dirty when first turned on at the
faucet, this is a good indication that the pipes are rusting, which can result
in severe water quality problems.
2. Damp or Wet Basement
An inspector will check your walls for a powdery white mineral deposit a few
inches off the floor, and will look to see if you feel secure enough to store
things right on your basement floor. A mildew odor is almost impossible to
eliminate, and an inspector will certainly be conscious of it.
It could cost you $200-$1,000 to seal a crack in or around your basement
foundation depending on severity and location. Adding a sump pump and pit could
run you around $750 - $1,000, and complete waterproofing (of an average 3
bedroom home) could amount to $5,000-$15,000. You will have to weigh these
figures into the calculation of what price you want to net on your home.
3. Inadequate Wiring & Electrical
Your home should have a minimum of 100 amps service, and this should be
clearly marked. Wire should be copper or aluminum. Home inspectors will look at
octopus plugs as indicative of inadequate circuits and a potential fire hazard.
4. Poor Heating & Cooling Systems
Insufficient insulation, and an inadequate or a poorly functioning heating
system, are the most common causes of poor heating. While an adequately clean
furnace, without rust on the heat exchanger, usually has life left in it, an
inspector will be asking and checking to see if your furnace is over its typical
life span of 15-25 yrs. For a forced air gas system, a heat exchanger will come
under particular scrutiny since one that is cracked can emit deadly carbon
monoxide into the home. These heat exchangers must be replaced if damaged -they
cannot be repaired.
5. Roofing Problems
Water leakage through the roof can occur for a variety of reasons such as
physical deterioration of the asphalt shingles (e.g. curling or splitting), or
mechanical damage from a wind storm. When gutters leak and downspouts allow
water to run down and through the exterior walls, this external problem becomes
a major internal one.
6. Damp Attic Spaces
Aside from basement dampness, problems with ventilation, insulation and vapor
barriers can cause water, moisture, mould and mildew to form in the attic. This
can lead to premature wear of the roof, structure and building materials. The
cost to fix this damage could easily run over $2,500.
7. Rotting Wood
This can occur in many places (door or window frames, trim, siding, decks and
fences). The building inspector will sometimes probe the wood to see if this is
present - especially when wood has been freshly painted.
8. Masonry Work
Re-bricking can be costly, but, left unattended, these repairs can cause
problems with water and moisture penetration into the home which in turn could
lead to a chimney being clogged by fallen bricks or even a chimney which falls
onto the roof. It can be costly to rebuild a chimney or to have it repainted.
9. Unsafe or Over-fused Electrical Circuit
A fire hazard is created when more amperage is drawn on the circuit than was
intended. 15 amp circuits are the most common in a typical home, with larger
service for large appliances such as stoves and dryers. It can cost several
hundred dollars to replace your fuse panel with a circuit panel.
10. Adequate Security Features
More than a purchased security system, an inspector will look for the basic
safety features that will protect your home such as proper locks on windows and
patio doors, dead bolts on the doors, smoke and even carbon monoxide detectors
in every bedroom and on every level. Even though pricing will vary, these
components will add to your costs. Before purchasing or installing, you should
check with your local experts.
11. Structural/Foundation Problems
An inspector will certainly investigate the underlying footing and foundation
of your home as structural integrity is fundamental to your home.
When you put your home on the market, you don't want any unpleasant
surprises that could cost you the sale of your home. By having an understanding
of these 11 problem areas as you walk through your home, you'll be arming
yourself against future disappointment.
Protecting Your Home from Fire and Carbon Monoxide
Safety & You
Everyone wants to live in a safe and worry free environment with their
families, spouse, and children. However, most people are closer to a
disaster waiting to happen than they think. Safety may not be an issue that
comes to mind as you go about your daily routine. You may feel safe. Yet,
lurking in your home are dangers that can take lives and destroy property.
Thousands of people die from fire every year. Most residential fire
deaths occur because of inhalation of toxic gas, rather than contact with
the flames. The tragedy is that many of these deaths could be prevented by
taking a few precautions.
General Fire Prevention Tips
- Do not plug too many appliances into an electrical outlet.
- Make sure that combustibles are not too close to heaters, stoves and
- Never smoke in bed, or leave a burning cigarette in an ashtray.
- Do not use damaged or frayed electrical cords or extension cords.
- Keep matches and lighters out of the reach of children.
- Teach your children about the dangers of playing with fire.
- Never use extension cords with heating or air conditioning equipment.
- Purchase smoke alarms and fire extinguishers for each floor of your
Have an Emergency Escape Plan! Practice it frequently!
- Develop an emergency exit plan and an alternate exit plan. The most
obvious way out may be blocked by fire. A window will usually be the
second way out of a bedroom. Make sure that screens or storm windows can
be easily removed. If you live in a two story home, you should have an
escape ladder for each occupied bedroom. Escape ladders are available for
purchase, and they can easily be stored under a bed or in a closet.
- Establish a meeting place outside your home to be sure everyone has
escaped. Every family member should participate in practicing escape
drills at least two times per year.
- In the event of fire, do not stop to get dressed or gather valuables.
Seconds count - do not search for the family pet.
- Teach your family that in a fire they must stay low to the floor to
avoid smoke and intense heat. Passageways may be completely filled with
dense smoke, so everyone should practice exiting on their hands and knees
- Train family members to feel a closed door before exiting. If the door
is warm, open it slowly, and close it quickly if heat or smoke rushes in.
- Establish a rule that once you're out, you never re-enter under any
circumstances. As soon as two people have reached the meeting place, one
should call 911 from a neighbor's house.
Through education and media campaigns, most people now realize the
importance of smoke alarms, and most homes in North America have them.
- Purchase a smoke alarm for every floor of your home, and read the
instructions on how to use it and where to position it.
- Smoke alarms should be placed near bedrooms, either on the ceiling or
six to twelve inches below the ceiling on the wall.
- Local codes may require additional alarms. Check with your fire
department or building code official.
- Locate smoke alarms away from air vents.
- Test your alarms regularly to ensure that they still work.
- If you have a battery powered alarm, change the battery every six
months when you change your clocks.
- For maximum protection, install BOTH ionization and photoelectric
smoke alarms in the home for the optimum detection of fast flaming fires
and slow smoldering fires.
To guard against small fires or to keep a small fire from developing into
a big one, every home should be equipped with a fire extinguisher. Because
almost all fires are small at first, they might be contained if a fire
extinguisher is handy and used properly. You should take care, however, to
select the right kind of fire extinguisher, because there are different ones
for different kinds of fires. Install fire extinguishers on every level of
the home and include the kitchen, basement and garage.
Selecting a Fire Extinguisher
Extinguishers are classified according to the class of fire for which
they are suitable. The four classes of fires are A, B, C, D:
- Class A fires involve common combustibles such as wood, paper, cloth,
rubber, trash and plastics. They are common in typical commercial and home
- Class B fires involve flammable liquids, solvents, oil, gasoline,
paints, lacquers and other oil-based products. Class B fires often spread
rapidly. Unless they are properly suppressed, they can re-flash after the
flames have been extinguished.
- Class C fires involve energized equipment such as wiring, controls,
motors, machinery or appliances. They can be caused by a spark, a power
surge, or a short circuit and typically occur in locations that may be
difficult to see or reach.
- Class D fires involve combustible metals.
A typical home or office fire extinguisher should have an ABC rating.
One of the greatest threats to your safety is the quality of air within
your home. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a subtle yet dangerous threat because the
gas is colorless, odorless and tasteless.
Each year, hundreds of people die from carbon monoxide poisoning.
Thousands of other people suffer the effects of the gas without realizing
it. Because CO symptoms mimic the flu and other common illnesses, CO
poisoning can be easily missed during a routine medical examination.
CO is produced when any fuel does not burn completely because of
insufficient oxygen. Mild exposure to CO gives most people a slight
headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue ("flu-like" symptoms) followed by a
throbbing headache, drowsiness, confusion, and fast heart rate. If the
entire family becomes ill after a few hours in the home, and feels better
when they leave the home, carbon monoxide poisoning should be suspected.
Possible sources of CO include:
- Furnace or boiler
- Gas or fuel-oil water heater
- Gas or wood fireplace
- Gas kitchen range
- Plugged, rusted, disconnected, or defective chimneys or vents
- Back drafting of combustion gases into the home
- Automobiles in attached garages
Certain clues can indicate a carbon monoxide problem. Check to see if you
have any of the following:
- Rusting or streaking on chimney or vent
- Loose or missing furnace panel
- Soot on venting or appliances
- Loose or disconnected venting
- Debris or soot falling from chimney
- Moisture on interior side of windows
CO can be produced and spill into your home without any of the preceding
clues present. Heating appliances that appear to be operating correctly can
still be sources of CO. Burning charcoal or wood produces CO that can spill
into the home. Gasoline engines, when first started, produce large amounts
of CO. Autos in attached garages are often sources of CO.
How To Protect Yourself
To avoid CO exposure in the home, it is important to:
- Make sure heating appliances are installed and used in accordance with
- Make sure chimneys and vents draw all gases out of the home.
- Have the heating system, chimney and vents inspected and serviced
annually by a qualified heating contractor.
- Never use charcoal grills indoors.
- Never heat your home with a gas kitchen range.
- Always use a kitchen range hood, vented to the outdoors, when cooking
on a gas range.
- Never warm-up or run vehicles or other gasoline engines in garages or
The Consumer Product Safety Commission recommends that every residence
with fuel burning appliances be equipped with at least one CO alarm. For
added protection, place one on every level of the home. Read and follow
If your alarm indicates high levels of carbon monoxide in your home:
- Immediately move outdoors to fresh air and do a head count
- Call your emergency services
- Do not re-enter the home until emergency service responders have
arrived, aired out the house, and determined it is safe to re-enter
- Correct the problem before starting the heating appliances
- If a carbon monoxide alarm sounds again, repeat the above steps. Do
not ignore alarms.
Fires are traumatizing and frightening, as is a carbon monoxide incident.
It is essential to fully recognize the hazards of fire and carbon monoxide
poisoning and to take preventative action. A regular home inspection, smoke
and carbon monoxide alarms, fire extinguishers and an emergency exit plan
will help you and your family live more safely.